Rootstocks

Roostock-anatomy-digramSCION

A bud of a desired varierty budded or grafted into a rootstock

ROOTSTOCK

The rootstock determines the size of the tree, vigor and the type of soil conditions it can handle. 

All our fruit trees (scions)
are propagated onto rootstocks

 

 

What is a rootstock?

A rootstock is a plant with an established healthy root system. Rootstocks provide the root system for the chosen scion variety.

Why use a rootstock?

A rootstock is carefully bred and chosen for a combination of known desirable attributes, such as adaptation to soils or climate, disease and pest resistance, control of the tree size, and high fruit productivity. Most rootstocks are clonally produced but some are still seedlings from a narrow genetic base.

How do you choose a rootstock for your orchard?

Orchard System PuzzleTHE ORCHARD SYSTEM PUZZLE
The pieces must fit together for success.
The choice of the rootstock is one of the key decisions in establishing your orchard and achieving superior tree performance.

A successful orchard system is the result of a designed integration of a group of component parts. The components include the rootstock, tree density, tree arrangement, tree quality, support system, pruning and training management techniques.

The component pieces must be selected carefully for an orchard system to be functional and profitable. For each component, the orchardist must choose among several options. Choices will be influenced by a number of mixed factors, including the site, the variety and yield, and fruit quality requirements (see right). Each component must be fully compatible with the other components. The major task in selecting a new orchard management system, like trying to complete a jigsaw puzzle, is fitting the component pieces together properly.

 

"Orchard System Puzzle" Compliments of: 

Good Fruit Grower "Intensive Orchard Management" Bruce H. Barritt

icon-appleApple scion variety growth on clonal rootstock compared to seedling


Roostock-Diagram 01 Roostock-Diagram 03 Roostock-Diagram 04 Roostock-Diagram 08 Roostock-Diagram 09 Roostock-Diagram 06 Roostock-Diagram 05 Roostock-Diagram 07 Roostock-Diagram 10 Roostock-Diagram 11 Roostock-Diagram 12 Roostock-Diagram 13 Roostock-Diagram 14 Roostock-Diagram 15 Roostock-Diagram 16 Roostock-Diagram 17


65


11


41


007


935


4210


202

M
27

M
9

Mark

M
26

MM
102

MM
106

Northern
Spy

M
793

Approx Tree Size 15 - 20% 25 - 30% 25 - 30% 30 - 35% 30 - 40% 35 - 40% 40 - 45% 15 - 20% 25 - 30% 35 - 40% 40 - 45% 50 - 55% 70% 75% 90%
Productivity Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Plus Tick-Medium Tick-Medium
Wooly Apple Aphid Resistance Tick Tick Tick-Plus Tick Cross Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Cross Cross Cross Cross Tick-Medium Tick Tick Tick
Phytophthora Resistance Tick-Plus Tick Tick Tick-Medium Tick Tick Tick Tick-Medium Tick Tick-Medium Cross Cross Cross Tick-Medium Tick
Fire Blight Resistance Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Double Tick Tick Tick-Double Tick-Double Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross
Replant Disease Complex Resistance Tick-Medium Tick ? Tick Tick Tick Cross Cross Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Tick
Fruit Size Compared to MM106 Small ? Similar ? Large Large Large Very
Small
Large Large Large Same Same Similar Small
Earliness of Fruit Maturity Compared to MM106 (days) ? -5/-7 -5/-7 ? -5/-7 0 0 0 -7 -7 -5/-7 0 0 0 +5
Cold Hardiness Tick-Double Tick Tick-Double ? Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Plus Tick-Plus
Suckering Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium
Burr Knots Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium

 

Key: Cross no / many   |   Tick-Medium medium / few   |   Tick yes / none  |  Tick-Plus  yes / high   |   Tick-Double yes / very high   | ? not known
* The Seedling Tree Height is standard. All of our trees are grown on rootstocks. The above diagram shows how tall a tree will grow on a rootstock compared to how tall a tree will grow on a seedling.

 

 

Background for main series of apple rootstocks availalble in New Zealand


Malling-Merton(MM) Rootstocks and Merton(M) Rootstocks

Many of the commercially used apple rootstocks today have derived from the collections of the East Malling Research Station and John Innis Institute in England. The rootstocks were collected and characterized by size from ancient rootstock populations used historically throughout Europe. Hybrids were also made from within these rootstocks to combine favorable attributes.

Michigan Apple Clone Series

A series of rootstocks were bred in Michigan and denoted with the abbreviation MAC and a number. Only MAC9 was released from this series and it was later renamed Mark after thermotherapy.

Geneva® (denoted as “G®”) rootstocks and Cornell-Geneva(CG) test selections:

In the 1960’s Cornell University, at the agricultural experimental station at Geneva, New York, initiated a breeding program for apple rootstocks with the essential objectives of early production, crown rot resistance, fire blight resistance, dwarfing but with a range of vigours, burr knot free, winter hardy, early fall hardening, good propagability, and clean shanked liners. They were also screening for a number of other important objectives, but these were regarded as non-essential. These objectives included woolly apple aphid resistance, good anchorage, late spring bud break, relatively few suckers, resistance to latent viruses and tomato ring spot virus, and a resistance to voles.

This project produced a number of commercially successful rootstocks before coming recognized of national and international significance and becoming jointly funded by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). At this time the additional selection characteristic of tolerance to apple replant disorder was added.

McGrath Nurseries, Ltd., became a co-licensee for these rootstocks in New Zealand in 1991 and has been extremely active in research, development and commercial release of these extremely promising pest and disease resistant rootstocks. We are extremely proud to have been a leading innovator in the release of these rootstocks in New Zealand.

The Geneva® rootstocks have given significant environmental gains in terms of reduced pesticide and heavy metal (copper) usage and have increased orchard yield efficiency.


 


icon-cherryCherry scion variety growth on clonal rootstock compared to seedling

Roostock-Diagram 01Plum Roostock-Diagram 23 Roostock-Diagram 24 Roostock-Diagram 25

Colt

Mazzard
Seedling

Mazzard
F12/1

Approx Tree Size 70-80% 100% 110-115%
Productivity Tick-Plus Tick-Medium Tick-Plus
Replant Disease Complex Resistance Tick Cross Cross
Soil Adaptability Tick Tick Tick-Double
Bacteria Canker Resistance Tick Cross Tick
Crown Gall Resistance Tick Cross Cross
Suckering Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium

 

KeyCross no / many   |   Tick-Medium medium / few   |   Tick yes / none  |  Tick-Plus  yes / high   |   Tick-Double yes / very high   | ? not known
* The Seedling Tree Height is standard. All of our trees are grown on rootstocks. The above diagram shows how tall a tree will grow on a rootstock compared to how tall a tree will grow on a seedling.

icon-plumPlum scion variety growth on clonal rootstock compared to seedling


Roostock-Diagram 01Plum Roostock-Diagram 18 Roostock-Diagram 19 Roostock-Diagram 20 Roostock-Diagram 21 Roostock-Diagram 22

Tetra®
(Test)

Penta®
(Test)

Peach
Seedling

Marianna
Plum

Myrobalan
B Plum

Approx Tree Size Est.
90%
Est.
100%

100%

110-120%

125-130%
Productivity (yield efficiency at maturity) Sim to
peach sdl
Sim to
peach sdl
Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus
Precocity Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Plus Tick-Medium
Replant Disease Complex Resistance Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick
Tolerance to Very Wet Soils Tick-Double Tick-Double Cross Tick-Plus Tick-Plus
Suckering Tick Tick Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium
No Support Required Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick


KeyCross no / many   |   Tick-Medium medium / few   |   Tick yes / none  |  Tick-Plus  yes / high   |   Tick-Double yes / very high   | ? not known

* The Seedling Tree Height is standard. All of our trees are grown on rootstocks. The above diagram shows how tall a tree will grow on a rootstock compared to how tall a tree will grow on a seedling.

icon-apricotApricot scion variety growth on clonal rootstock compared to seedling


Roostock-Diagram 01Plum Roostock-Diagram 41 Roostock-Diagram 44 Roostock-Diagram 42 Roostock-Diagram 40 Roostock-Diagram 43
 

Penta®
(Test)

Apricot
Seedling

Peach
Seedling

Tetra®
(Test)

Myrobalan
B Plum

Approx Tree Size 90% 90% 100% 110% 120%-130%
Productivity (yield efficiency at maturity) Tick-Plus Tick Tick-Plus  Tick-Plus Tick-Plus
Precocity Tick-Double Tick Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Medium
Replant Disease Complex Resistance Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick
Tolerance to Very Wet Soils Tick-Double Variable  Cross Tick-Double Tick-Plus
Suckering Tick Tick Tick-Medium Tick Tick-Medium
No Support Required Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick

 

KeyCross no / many   |   Tick-Medium medium / few   |   Tick yes / none  |  Tick-Plus  yes / high   |   Tick-Double yes / very high   | ? not known

* The Peach Seedling height is defined as standard. All of our Apricot trees are grown on Peach rootstock unless specifically ordered.

icon-pearPear scion variety growth on clonal rootstock compared to seedling


Roostock-Diagram 01 Roostock-Diagram 26 Roostock-Diagram 27

Quince C

Quince
BA29 C

Approx Tree Size  30 - 35%  50 - 65%
Productivity Tick-Double  Tick
Crown Gall Resistance Tick Tick
Pear Decline Resistant Tick Tick
Precoaty  Tick-Double Tick
Suckering Tick-Medium Tick-Medium
No Support Required Tick Cross


KeyCross no / many   |   Tick-Medium medium / few   |   Tick yes / none  |  Tick-Plus  yes / high   |   Tick-Double yes / very high   | ? not known

* The Seedling Tree Height is standard. All of our trees are grown on rootstocks. The above diagram shows how tall a tree will grow on a rootstock compared to how tall a tree will grow on a seedling.

icon-peach

Peach & Nectarine rootstocks

Currently all our peach and nectarine trees are grown on Golden Queen Seedling as a standard rootstock.
Plum rootstocks can be used by special arrangement.

You are here: Home Fruit trees Rootstocks